Philosophy - an introduction to this page

This page was last updated on March 14, 2023.

This page relects my interests in Philosophy. It also reflects the interests and activities of the Melrose Park Philosophy Club, which I co-founded approximately in the year 2,000. I hope to add various sub-topics as time permits. Thank you for reading or for adding comments and suggestions! Reach me at Thank you!

Albert Fried-Cassorla January 3, 2021


Causality and Science

"The related topics of causation and hypotheses can be complicated. To provide something eminently manageable, I'd suggest the following:

First, reading ONLY item #4 (on pages 5 and 6) of the following document:
(To be sure, interested readers are welcome to read the rest of the document.)

Second, read the following abstract:
What is important in this abstract is ONLY to understand the problem that the author is proposing to solve. I don't think it's necessary to fuss that much with his proposed solution (the last part of the abstract).


Dark Matter

This article from Columbia College Today Magazine is concise, and beautifully illustrated! Maybe these Columbia scientists will find the 85% of matter that is missing. And then we will no longer fly apart!

A friend asked me "How do you rule out the existence of many types of dark matter that you've proposed?"

My answer is: I rule out all types of dark matter except phlogiston.


Alchemist J.J. Becher first made this ground-breaking discovery.

To Becher's observations, I add: "Look around you. You see many empty spaces that masquerade as empty air. This space is, indeed, filled with phlogiston. And we ride within an unseen ocean of it, comprising 86% if the invisible universe. This is the Dark Matter whose existence had previously been unrevealed to you. And now you know!"



Friendship - What is a good friendship? And how may we aspire to be good friends?

Our Philosophy Club had a great meeting on the varied subject of Friendship on December 22, 2023. We discussed many of the quesriona listed above. The views of Aristotle were presented by Jeffrey Berger and of Epicurus by Albert Fried-Cassorla. The news release contains many valuable links, and the zoom discussion shows our presentations plus valuable discussion.


Friendship Philo Club meeting News Release

Friendship Philosophy Resources

Friendship Philosophy meeting Zoom recording


Quantum Physics or Mechanics

For the purpose of this web site, and generally, Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Physics refer to the same topic.

Below is a link to my article on the subject:

Quantum Physics - some Key Aspects by Albert Fried-Cassorla 8-12-21


And here is a link to the meeting of the Melrose Park Philosophy Club featuring Dr. Paul Halpern on Quantum Physics.

Quantum email 2 - Pre-Socratics Wave Functions and more 5-3-21

The above is a link to a pdf of an email that includes links to articles by our speaker at a Philosophy Club meeting, Paul Halpern. It also includes links to relevant videos and readings.


Quantaum Entanglement, a brief description by Robert Fuentes - May 3, 2021

The above link is to a brief article written at my request by friend Robert Fuentes, on the subject of Quantum Entanglement. As you will see, it also provides a general relationshp of the subject to Classical Physics.


Free Will vs. Determinism

If your mind goes wandering in a forest, who decides where it heads?

 Photo by Marina Priest via

This was (or will be!) the topic of a presentation by member Jeff Berger, who teaches philosophy at Community College of Philadelphia (CCP). The presentation is slated for January 20, 2022. For a zoom invitation prior to that date, write to me at After then, you may inquire as to whether further materials have been posted about the session. Thank you.




Science - Philosophy of Science

As a general introduction to Philosophy of Science, I (Albert) recommend the following:

Video - Philosophy of science in fifteen minutes - by Mark Pallen -

Text - For a lengthy but good article on the subjects, try wikipedia.

To search for particular national belioefs about science, or by individual philosophers, refer to:

The following materials and links pertain to a planned meeting of our Philosophy Club to be led by Dr. Justin Kaplan. As I write this, the meeting is set for February 17, 2021 via Zoom.

Science Denial

This is from an email from Justin:

"The FIRST part of this email is a response to requests for information for preparation for the session.

"Here are a few things that interested people can read in advance. I have tried to be highly selective, so that these materials require only a brief amount of time.

"For the topic of countering science denial, I like the following: